The Six Mountain Travel Books by Eric Shipton
Eric Shipton，英國人，登山探險家。生卒年 1907-1977。
忘記何時知道他的大名的，他的名字總是和 Bill Tilman 連在一起，二人是長期的探險夥伴。由Gore-Tex贊助的一個探險獎金，以他們二人為名。在巴基斯坦喀拉崑崙山區也有一座紀念他的 Shipton Spire。
很久以前我在西雅圖的書店買了他的書籍合訂本，其中包含了六本以山岳探險為主題的書，剛讀完《Nanda Devi》，目前正在讀《Blank on the Map》，兩本書大致上都是詳實紀錄，字裡行間可以深刻感受到他的真摯和實在。尤其《Blank on the Map》的第二章「Of the Real Value of Climbing」實在太讚，忍不住嘗試翻譯出來，和大家分享。翻得不夠精準，還請見諒。
Of the Real Value of Climbing
Those days in London, before we had even packed our rucksacks, were very strenuous. There were formal permissions to be set in order, supplies to be bought, passages to be booked, and a mass of detail to be attended to that seemed to have little relation to the life we would lead in the mountains. Was all this effort worthwhile? Why should we go to such lengths to plunge ourselves into a life of discomfort and privation? To me it is worthwhile because of what it leads to. Every time I start an expedition I feel that I am getting back to a way of living which is now lost.
With a wistfulness, perhaps a little tinged with sentimentality, I think of the leisurely days of a few hundred years ago, before life was so mad a rush, before the countryside was spoiled by droves of people, and beauty itself exploited as commercial proposition.
It is true that the very act of looking back seems to touch the past with gold. Probably the “good old days” were hard and uncomfortable, but they did foster individuality. Life had then an essential quality of reality which now we seem to have lost. We have become so accustomed to having everyday life made easy for us, that our energies are not absorbed in the art of living, but run riot in a craving for sensation. Individuality is swamped in the mass emotion of hurrying mobs of people whose thoughts are dragooned by the ready-made ideas of shallow press articles.
So many human activities have lost their power to refresh the spirit because people tend to do things for the wrong reasons – for publicity, for sensationalism, for money, or because it is the fashion to do them. A wrong attitude, based on an unreal sense of values, poisons our recreations no less than the more serious aspects of living. Reality should be the essential factor in sport as in life. Any other basic aim endangers the right attitude of mind without which there can be no real happiness nor the full enjoyment of any activity.
因此許多人類的活動失去了洗滌性靈的力量，因為人們本著錯誤的動機行事 ─ 為了出名、為了滿足官能、為了錢財、或者只是為了趕時髦。建築在錯誤的價值觀上的偏差態度，其毒害休閒活動的程度，不亞於生命裡其他更嚴重的東西。真實是運動也是生命的最重要的因子，他種基本動機都給正確心態帶來威脅，而沒有正確的心態，是無法取得真正的快樂，也無法全面性地享受任何活動。
A man who is really keen about sailing is in the first place attracted by the sea with all its problems, hardships, and beauties – by the very form of life which the sea offers. He sails because sailing teaches him the art of living in the environment which he loves. It gives him a larger, clearer view of the problems and difficulties of his craft; and so he comes to a realization of the true aesthetic value of the sea.
喜歡航海的人最初必是被海洋所吸引，包括所有海洋提供的問題、困難、和美麗 ─ 這是海洋提供的生命形式。他航行，因為航海這件事讓他在熱愛的環境中，學習生命的藝術。經此他可以更宏觀、更清晰地看到他的技藝面對的問題和困難，也因此他體悟了海洋真正的美。
In the same way the skier wishes to become part of the country of snow-laden firs and winter mountains which means so much to him. He finds in his sport a way of identifying himself with this enchanting world. He cannot easily achieve this in the competitive social atmosphere of a crowded winter sports resort. He must go to the higher mountains, or to the silent forests of Norway. So it is with the fisherman and his lakes and rivers; and with the big-game hunter and his jungles; and with the mountaineer and his peak and glaciers.
But directly people allow the element of competition to rule their activities, and care more for trophies, or record-breaking, or acclamation, than for a real understanding of their craft, or even if they are content with short cuts to proficiency and superficial knowledge, they are in danger of losing the touchstone of genuine values which alone makes anything worthwhile.
The tendency nowadays to be artificial instead of genuine, and superficial instead of thorough, is caused partly by everyone being in such a hurry, and partly by things being made too easy for us. If a man has money to spend and feels that it would be exciting to go and shoot big game in East Africa, all he need do is to go to a travel agency and book his passage in a luxury liner. When he arrives, he engages the services of a “white hunter,” relies on that man’s marksmanship and knowledge of the bush, and returns a few months later with a number of tall stories and several crated of trophies. But he has not lived the real life of a hunter; nor has he made the experience a part of his own life. He has taken an easy short cut to vicarious adventure. The mountaineer who goes to the Alps for a season’s climbing, with a desire to climb more peaks than other men, and by more difficult routes, misses the real value of the experience – the love of mountains for their own sake. The real purpose of climbing, and of any other sport, should be transmute it into a way of living, however temporary, in an environment which appeals to the individual.
現今的趨勢之所以以人工取代真實，以膚淺代替透徹，部份肇因於人人都在趕時間，部份肇因於事物的容易取得。一個有錢人若覺得去東非狩獵是件很刺激的事，他只需到旅行社，就可以把行程搞定。抵達時，會有專人為他服務，他只要仰賴該服務者的槍法和當地知識，幾個月之後就可以帶回整箱的戰利品和漂亮的故事。但是他仍然沒有成為真正的獵人，也沒有把那份經驗內化成他生命的一部份，他只是走了一條身歷其境的捷徑。一位在阿爾卑斯山區整個登山季的攀登者，如果他的動機是比其他人爬更多的山，爬更難的路線，他錯失了登山經驗的真正價值 ─ 對山峰本身的熱愛。攀登的真正目的，以及所有其它運動的真正目的，應該是讓從事者在吸引他們的環境中，將活動蛻變成為生活的一種方式，儘管只是暫時。
Often when I have been climbing in the Alps I have thought how enthralling it must have been to see the Alps as De Saussure saw them, before they had been civilized out of their wild unspoiled beauty and tamed into a social asset. A hundred and fifty years ago men went to the Alps to investigate the phenomena of mountains. The result of their quest was the birth of the sciences of geology and glaciology, and they study of the rarefication of the atmosphere at high altitudes, together with its effect upon the human body and upon plants. But in addition to all these discoveries, De Saussure and his companions found in mountains not only the grim hostility which tradition had ascribed to them, but also infinite beauty, peace and solitude, and a recreation of spirit of which they had not dreamed. And just as hundreds of years before sailors had learned to love the sea though it confronted them with dangers and hardships, so these scientists and pioneer travellers came to love the mountains in spite of, or perhaps because of, their severity.
我在阿爾卑斯山區攀登的時候，常想如果能像 De Saussure 看阿爾卑斯一樣看這些山峰該是如何美妙，那時候阿爾卑斯的原始美還沒受任何文明污染，也未被馴服成社會的資產。一百五十年前人們去阿爾卑斯研究山的現象，地質學和冰川學也因而誕生，他們研究高海拔空氣稀薄的環境，以及其對人體和植物的影響。在種種發現以外， De Saussure 和他的同伴覺察到，高山縱有傳統描述的不利人的嚴峻環境，也具有無限的風光、和平、和孤寂，以及他們做夢也沒想到的對靈性的培養。就好像數百年前儘管必須面對海洋帶來的危險和困境，航海者學會愛海，這些科學家和先行者也學會愛山，儘管山峰是那麼嚴峻，而或者他們愛山的理由就是因為山的嚴峻。
We, to-day, envy them the access they had to that unknown mountain world, and the unspoiled culture of its people. But even now the Alps themselves are potentially what they were, if only a man goes to them in the right spirit. Hilaire Belloc, in our own day, saw the Alps by the grace of his shaping imagination, as “peak and field and needle of intense ice, remote, remote from the world.”
But it is useless to long for the past. We cannot put back the clock of Time. We cannot set out with Columbus and experience the thrill of finding American, nor sail with Captain Cook in search of the mythical continent of the South Pacific. We cannot share the mounting excitement of the men who first crossed the high pass from Zermatt to Breuil and saw Italy below them, and above them the curving spire of the unclimbed Matterhorn. Now, whether we like it or not, the Matterhorn is surrounded by hotels, and if we climb it we have the help of fixed ropes and the security of other men’s experience.
But the greater mountain ranges of the world are still surprisingly little known. We now have the opportunity to see the Himalaya as De Saussure saw the Alps a hundred and fifty years ago. Its peaks and valleys are unexplored. Its people are leading natural lives, instead of feverishly exploiting their country for profit of doubtful value. The Himalaya provides an even greater field of opportunity than the Alps gave to De Saussure. It is so vast a range that it embraces many countries and different types of people. The peaks and glaciers present such difficulties to the pioneer that exploring them calls for a higher standard of mountaineering skill than at present exists.
但是世界上更大的山脈依然出奇地鮮為人知。就像 De Saussure 在一百五十年前看阿爾卑斯一樣，我們現在有機會看喜瑪拉雅。當地的住民以天然的方式生活，而不是熱切地為價值可疑的利益開發他們的國家。喜瑪拉雅提供一個比阿爾卑斯提供給 De Saussure 更大的機會，它是這麼地廣大，囊括許多國家和多樣的民族。那裡的山峰和冰川給予先鋒探險者的挑戰，要求他們必須提高現今登山技術的標準。
Let us approach this great heritage in the right spirit, not impelled by ambition. Let us study its people and their culture. Let us explore its vast tangle of mountains and glaciers, penetrating the deep sunless gorges to find the hidden beauty which lies beyond, crossing unknown passes which lead us from one region of mystery to another. Let us climb peaks by all means, because their beauty attracts us; not because others have failed, nor because the summits stand 28,000 feet above the sea, nor in patriotic fervour for the honour of the nation, nor for cheap publicity. Let us approach the peaks with humility; and, having found the way to them for ourselves, learn to solve their problems. Let us not attack them with an army, announcing on the wireless to a sensation-loving world the news of our departure and the progress of our subsequent advance.
But it is not yet time to climb these great mountains. With so much of the vast Himalaya still a blank on the map, our first privilege is to explore rather than to climb. In two hundred years, when the Himalaya are known, then we may enjoy the range by climbing its peaks. In two thousand years time, when all peaks are climbed, we shall look for more difficult routes by which to climb them, to recapture the feel of adventure, and perhaps to demonstrate our modern superiority!
It is unfortunately just as possible to go to the Himalaya, as to the Alps, with the wrong attitude of mind. Whether people realize that mountaineering is an inspiration, or condemn it as an insane risk of human life, it is obvious that its value lies in the motives of the climber. The ascent of Everest, like any other human endeavour, is only to be judged by the spirit in which it is attempted.
There is something fine in the desire to test human endurance against the deadening power of altitude, the difficulties of steep ice and rock, and the searching rigours of intense cold and wind; but the greatest value of the art of climbing, with its perfect co-ordination of mind and muscle, is that it teaches man a way of living in the beauty and solitude of high remote places.
And so – despite all the turmoil – the preparations of an expedition are for me so full of excitement that the irritation and delays only increase my longing to be off.
所以，儘管煩躁 ─ 準備遠征讓興奮充塞我心，煩人的瑣碎和延遲只增加我對出發日子的期待。
The voyage out to India was an interlude between a life and a life. We arrived at Bombay on April 22nd.