Chouinard Equipment 1972年型錄《A Word…》(翻譯)



70年代,美國攀登史上有一個很有名的運動,叫做「Clean Climbing」。呼籲攀登者使用不會傷害岩石的裝備來攀登。那時候活躍在Yosemite的攀登者用大量的岩釘攀登,重複使用下岩隙就開始有坑洞。後來他們發現英國人使用繩環扁帶以及不同大小可以卡在岩隙裡頭的岩楔來做攀登時的保護,這些保護之後可以被乾淨地移除,不留痕跡。於焉,Clean Climbing的運動開始。

當時有幾篇經典的文章出現,最有名的大概是Yvon Chouinard和Tom Frost合夥的裝備公司,在1972產品型錄上的文章,包括Chouinard和Frost的《A Word…》以及Doug Robinson精彩的《The Whole Natural Art of Protection》。


這篇文章翻譯的是A Word… 希望很快就有時間翻譯篇幅長很多的The Whole Natural Art of Protection.


A Word…


The 1960’s marked an awakening in American climbing characterized by a vast increase in climbing activity, closely paralleled by a corresponding improvement in technique and equipment. Significant climbing advances have resulted. On the other hand, this combination is producing a serious problem – deterioration of the climbing environment. The deterioration is twofold, involving the physical aspect of the mountains and the moral integrity of the climbers.


No longer can we assume the earth’s resources are limitless; that there are ranges of unclimbed peaks, extending endlessly beyond the horizon. Mountains are finite, and despite their massive appearance, they are fragile.


Although alpine tundra, meadows, trees, lakes and streams are all endangered, our primary concern here is with deterioration of the rock itself. Granite is delicate and soft – much softer than the alloy steel pitons being hammered into it. On popular routes in Yosemite and elsewhere the cracks are degenerating into serious of piton holes. Flakes and slabs are being pried loose and broken off as a result of repeated placement and removal of hard pitons.


We can offer a few immediate solutions. Say off climbs you do not intend to finish. Don’t climb up to Sickle Ledge unless you plan to do the entire Nose. Do not use artificial aid on free climbs. But most of all, start using chocks. Chocks and runners are not damaging to the rock and provide a pleasurable and practical alternative to pitons on most free, and many artificial climbs. Do not use pitons on established clean routes. Where a piton is necessary a fixed piton should be considered and documented in local guide books. Routes of 5.7 difficulty were climbed 60 years ago in England. Today the footholds on these routes are well polished, but because pitons have not been used the protection cracks are still in mint condition. We urge to your attention Doug Robinson’s excellent treatise on the joys and ways of pitonless climbing. It was written especially for this catalog.

我們可以提供一些直接的解決方案。別爬你不打算完成的路線。如果你沒有打算爬完The Nose就不要爬上Sickle Ledge。在自由攀登的路線上,不要用人工器械。但最重要的是,開始使用chocks。Chocks和繩環不會破壞岩石,並且在大部分的自由攀登路線,以及很多的人工攀登路線,提供一個有趣且實際的替代方案。不要在已建立的、可以無痕攀登的路線上使用岩釘。如果在某一條路線上,岩釘是必要的,考慮放置一個永久的岩釘,並記錄在指南書裡。在英國60年前早有許多5.7難度的路線了。雖然這些路線的腳點已經非常光滑,但因為沒有人使用岩釘,用來保護的裂隙仍然像原來一樣。呼籲各位一定要好好讀接下來Doug Robinson’s的經典文章,娓娓道來不使用岩釘攀登的方式和樂趣。該篇文章是他特別為這份型錄所寫的。

Equally serious is a moral deterioration. Armed with ever more advanced gadgetry and techniques the style of technical climbing is gradually becoming so degraded that elements vital to the climbing experience – adventure and appreciation of the mountain environment itself – are being submerged. Siege tactics, bolt ladders, bat hooks, bash chocks, detailed topos and equipment lists, plus a guaranteed rescue diminish rather than enhance a climb. Even now existing techniques and technology are so powerful that almost any climb imaginable can be realized, and the fear of the unknown reduced to rote exercise.

同樣嚴重的是道德淪喪的問題。裝配著更先進的玩意和技術,技術攀登的風格逐漸往下沉淪,攀登經驗裡最重要的元素 ─ 冒險和對山岳環境的讚賞 ─ 都已不復見。可以隨時得到補給和撤退的siege攀登方式,打錨栓梯子,蝙蝠鉤,用槌子把不合大小的岩楔敲進岩隙裡,詳盡的路線圖和裝備清單,一定會來的救援,都會削減而不是增加攀登的價值。儘管現在的技巧和技術是這麼地強大,幾乎可以讓所有想像得到的攀登得以成真,對未知的恐懼也只變成習慣性的練習。

Mad bolters are among the worst offenders of the alpine environment. Young climbers must learn that bolting is done as a substitute for climbing. Guides, climbing schools and established climbers have a heavy responsibility here.


We believe that only way to ensure the climbing experience for ourselves and future generations is to preserve (1) the vertical wilderness, and (2) the adventure inherent in the experience. Really, the only insurance to guarantee this adventure and the safest insurance to maintain it is exercise of moral restraint and individual responsibility.


Thus, it is the style of the climb, not attainment of the summit, which is the measure of personal success. Traditionally stated, each of us must consider whether the end is more important than the means. Given the vital importance of style we suggest that the keynote is simplicity. The fewer gadgets between the climber and the climb, the greater is the chance to attain the desired communication with oneself – and nature.


The equipment offered in this catalog attempts to support this ethic. Basically multi-purpose, the articles are carefully designed to serve the overall needs of the climber. More than mere aids, they are conceived to be used in meaningful combination with accepted technique to elevate the individual to a rewarding alpine experience.


As we enter this new era of mountaineering, re-examine your motives for climbing. Employ restraint and good judgment in the use of Chouinard equipment. Remember the rock, the other climbers — climb clean.

在我們走向登山的新紀元的同時,重新審視你攀登的動機。在使用Chouinard裝備的同時,要配合自制和良好的判斷能力。為岩石著想,也記得其他的攀登者 ─ 無痕地攀登。


讀書手札《Moments of Doubt》,談真實

《Moments of Doubt》by David Roberts

《Moments of Doubt》by David Roberts

最近開始看 David Roberts 的書《Moments of Doubt》。這本書集結二十篇作者在 1964~1985年間發表在各大刊物的文章,並以之中一篇文章的篇名為書名。首次出版於 1987 年。

我擁有這本書蠻久了,但是一直沒有讀,可能是覺得自己才開始攀登吧,如果就滿腦子疑慮,怎麼可能勇往直前呢?去年首登川西的喀麥隆山之後,在山頂遇閃電,下降時又犯了個幾乎以生命為代價的錯誤,好不容易回到營帳,隔天和 Dave 交換心得,才發現因為我倆的背景、以及從事攀登活動的長短等等不同,我倆對登山有大相逕庭的看法。他說他從事攀登活動愈久,愈多朋友因這活動而離開人世,他對風險的看法也愈來愈不一樣。那時候,我犯了該個錯誤,他說他從來沒有哪時候像那時候那麼害怕。

於是,我們談起這本書,Dave說該本書出版時,他開始攀登沒多久,年輕的他認為 “Roberts has no game”(中文大概勉強可以翻成「沒屌」或者是「很孬」吧),但是慢慢地他愈來愈體認作者描述的真實。

我最近開始看這本書,Royal Robbins寫了推薦序,推崇 Roberts 的作品「優雅和誠實的完美結合」。




「The way I think about climbing, however, has changed greatly. In part this is because I write now mostly for a general audience. … I think it does any writer a world of good to have to explain the mystery of his passion to outsiders. The burden of exposition is a drag – explaining over and over again what “belay” means, what a jumar is for. But the challenge of standing back from an obsession to clarify it for the skeptics can, at best, provoke an act of self-discovery.」

(小Po的翻譯:「然而,我現在看攀登這檔事已經和以往有很大的不同了,部份原因在於我現在大部分寫作的對象為一般讀者 … 我認為,一個作家如果必須對圈外人解釋他熱情所在處的奧秘,是對他有相當大的助益的。解釋名詞的確是煩人的負擔─一而再、再而三地解釋什麼叫「確保」,「上升器」是幹啥用的。但是讓自己從執迷到必須站遠些,以讓質疑者看清楚我們的執迷,在最好的情況下,這份挑戰激發對自我的探索。」)


「It is an easy trap to let irony become a reflex. Some of my less enthusiastic readers have complained that a Roberts essay can be counted on to be snide and critical. Better, I believe, to err on the critical side than on the romantic. Yet the worst sin of all is to grow too jaded to see what it is, after all, that makes hard men and armchair fans alike so fascinated with our odd avocation.」


「… Yet what struck me all at once was how breathtaking and bizarre climbing was. … It was that there was something special about the sport, some intricacy of deed that takes hold of the spirit and asks it fundamental questions. …」

(小Po的翻譯:「… 一下子震攝到我的是:攀登這檔事讓人屏息驚嘆,卻也是個無比古怪的活動 … 關於攀登,有些特別的東西,像是複雜的契約書,它掌握了心靈,並詢問心靈根本的問題 … 」)





The Six Mountain Travel Books by Eric Shipton

The Six Mountain Travel Books by Eric Shipton

Eric Shipton,英國人,登山探險家。生卒年 1907-1977。

忘記何時知道他的大名的,他的名字總是和 Bill Tilman 連在一起,二人是長期的探險夥伴。由Gore-Tex贊助的一個探險獎金,以他們二人為名。在巴基斯坦喀拉崑崙山區也有一座紀念他的 Shipton Spire。


很久以前我在西雅圖的書店買了他的書籍合訂本,其中包含了六本以山岳探險為主題的書,剛讀完《Nanda Devi》,目前正在讀《Blank on the Map》,兩本書大致上都是詳實紀錄,字裡行間可以深刻感受到他的真摯和實在。尤其《Blank on the Map》的第二章「Of the Real Value of Climbing」實在太讚,忍不住嘗試翻譯出來,和大家分享。翻得不夠精準,還請見諒。

Of the Real Value of Climbing


Those days in London, before we had even packed our rucksacks, were very strenuous. There were formal permissions to be set in order, supplies to be bought, passages to be booked, and a mass of detail to be attended to that seemed to have little relation to the life we would lead in the mountains. Was all this effort worthwhile? Why should we go to such lengths to plunge ourselves into a life of discomfort and privation? To me it is worthwhile because of what it leads to. Every time I start an expedition I feel that I am getting back to a way of living which is now lost.


With a wistfulness, perhaps a little tinged with sentimentality, I think of the leisurely days of a few hundred years ago, before life was so mad a rush, before the countryside was spoiled by droves of people, and beauty itself exploited as commercial proposition.


It is true that the very act of looking back seems to touch the past with gold. Probably the “good old days” were hard and uncomfortable, but they did foster individuality. Life had then an essential quality of reality which now we seem to have lost. We have become so accustomed to having everyday life made easy for us, that our energies are not absorbed in the art of living, but run riot in a craving for sensation. Individuality is swamped in the mass emotion of hurrying mobs of people whose thoughts are dragooned by the ready-made ideas of shallow press articles.


So many human activities have lost their power to refresh the spirit because people tend to do things for the wrong reasons – for publicity, for sensationalism, for money, or because it is the fashion to do them. A wrong attitude, based on an unreal sense of values, poisons our recreations no less than the more serious aspects of living. Reality should be the essential factor in sport as in life. Any other basic aim endangers the right attitude of mind without which there can be no real happiness nor the full enjoyment of any activity.

因此許多人類的活動失去了洗滌性靈的力量,因為人們本著錯誤的動機行事 ─ 為了出名、為了滿足官能、為了錢財、或者只是為了趕時髦。建築在錯誤的價值觀上的偏差態度,其毒害休閒活動的程度,不亞於生命裡其他更嚴重的東西。真實是運動也是生命的最重要的因子,他種基本動機都給正確心態帶來威脅,而沒有正確的心態,是無法取得真正的快樂,也無法全面性地享受任何活動。

A man who is really keen about sailing is in the first place attracted by the sea with all its problems, hardships, and beauties – by the very form of life which the sea offers. He sails because sailing teaches him the art of living in the environment which he loves. It gives him a larger, clearer view of the problems and difficulties of his craft; and so he comes to a realization of the true aesthetic value of the sea.

喜歡航海的人最初必是被海洋所吸引,包括所有海洋提供的問題、困難、和美麗 ─ 這是海洋提供的生命形式。他航行,因為航海這件事讓他在熱愛的環境中,學習生命的藝術。經此他可以更宏觀、更清晰地看到他的技藝面對的問題和困難,也因此他體悟了海洋真正的美。

In the same way the skier wishes to become part of the country of snow-laden firs and winter mountains which means so much to him. He finds in his sport a way of identifying himself with this enchanting world. He cannot easily achieve this in the competitive social atmosphere of a crowded winter sports resort. He must go to the higher mountains, or to the silent forests of Norway. So it is with the fisherman and his lakes and rivers; and with the big-game hunter and his jungles; and with the mountaineer and his peak and glaciers.


But directly people allow the element of competition to rule their activities, and care more for trophies, or record-breaking, or acclamation, than for a real understanding of their craft, or even if they are content with short cuts to proficiency and superficial knowledge, they are in danger of losing the touchstone of genuine values which alone makes anything worthwhile.


The tendency nowadays to be artificial instead of genuine, and superficial instead of thorough, is caused partly by everyone being in such a hurry, and partly by things being made too easy for us. If a man has money to spend and feels that it would be exciting to go and shoot big game in East Africa, all he need do is to go to a travel agency and book his passage in a luxury liner. When he arrives, he engages the services of a “white hunter,” relies on that man’s marksmanship and knowledge of the bush, and returns a few months later with a number of tall stories and several crated of trophies. But he has not lived the real life of a hunter; nor has he made the experience a part of his own life. He has taken an easy short cut to vicarious adventure. The mountaineer who goes to the Alps for a season’s climbing, with a desire to climb more peaks than other men, and by more difficult routes, misses the real value of the experience – the love of mountains for their own sake. The real purpose of climbing, and of any other sport, should be transmute it into a way of living, however temporary, in an environment which appeals to the individual.

現今的趨勢之所以以人工取代真實,以膚淺代替透徹,部份肇因於人人都在趕時間,部份肇因於事物的容易取得。一個有錢人若覺得去東非狩獵是件很刺激的事,他只需到旅行社,就可以把行程搞定。抵達時,會有專人為他服務,他只要仰賴該服務者的槍法和當地知識,幾個月之後就可以帶回整箱的戰利品和漂亮的故事。但是他仍然沒有成為真正的獵人,也沒有把那份經驗內化成他生命的一部份,他只是走了一條身歷其境的捷徑。一位在阿爾卑斯山區整個登山季的攀登者,如果他的動機是比其他人爬更多的山,爬更難的路線,他錯失了登山經驗的真正價值 ─ 對山峰本身的熱愛。攀登的真正目的,以及所有其它運動的真正目的,應該是讓從事者在吸引他們的環境中,將活動蛻變成為生活的一種方式,儘管只是暫時。

Often when I have been climbing in the Alps I have thought how enthralling it must have been to see the Alps as De Saussure saw them, before they had been civilized out of their wild unspoiled beauty and tamed into a social asset. A hundred and fifty years ago men went to the Alps to investigate the phenomena of mountains. The result of their quest was the birth of the sciences of geology and glaciology, and they study of the rarefication of the atmosphere at high altitudes, together with its effect upon the human body and upon plants. But in addition to all these discoveries, De Saussure and his companions found in mountains not only the grim hostility which tradition had ascribed to them, but also infinite beauty, peace and solitude, and a recreation of spirit of which they had not dreamed. And just as hundreds of years before sailors had learned to love the sea though it confronted them with dangers and hardships, so these scientists and pioneer travellers came to love the mountains in spite of, or perhaps because of, their severity.

我在阿爾卑斯山區攀登的時候,常想如果能像 De Saussure 看阿爾卑斯一樣看這些山峰該是如何美妙,那時候阿爾卑斯的原始美還沒受任何文明污染,也未被馴服成社會的資產。一百五十年前人們去阿爾卑斯研究山的現象,地質學和冰川學也因而誕生,他們研究高海拔空氣稀薄的環境,以及其對人體和植物的影響。在種種發現以外, De Saussure 和他的同伴覺察到,高山縱有傳統描述的不利人的嚴峻環境,也具有無限的風光、和平、和孤寂,以及他們做夢也沒想到的對靈性的培養。就好像數百年前儘管必須面對海洋帶來的危險和困境,航海者學會愛海,這些科學家和先行者也學會愛山,儘管山峰是那麼嚴峻,而或者他們愛山的理由就是因為山的嚴峻。

We, to-day, envy them the access they had to that unknown mountain world, and the unspoiled culture of its people. But even now the Alps themselves are potentially what they were, if only a man goes to them in the right spirit. Hilaire Belloc, in our own day, saw the Alps by the grace of his shaping imagination, as “peak and field and needle of intense ice, remote, remote from the world.”

我們,今日,艷羨前人可以探索未知的山群,以及山區原住民未受外界污染的文化。但是如果人們以正確的精神進山,阿爾卑斯可能還是它們以前的樣子。我們這一世代的一員,Hilaire Belloc,即以想像力的力量見著阿爾卑斯為「離世界極遠極遠的地方,山、野、以及險冽的冰針。」

But it is useless to long for the past. We cannot put back the clock of Time. We cannot set out with Columbus and experience the thrill of finding American, nor sail with Captain Cook in search of the mythical continent of the South Pacific. We cannot share the mounting excitement of the men who first crossed the high pass from Zermatt to Breuil and saw Italy below them, and above them the curving spire of the unclimbed Matterhorn. Now, whether we like it or not, the Matterhorn is surrounded by hotels, and if we climb it we have the help of fixed ropes and the security of other men’s experience.


But the greater mountain ranges of the world are still surprisingly little known. We now have the opportunity to see the Himalaya as De Saussure saw the Alps a hundred and fifty years ago. Its peaks and valleys are unexplored. Its people are leading natural lives, instead of feverishly exploiting their country for profit of doubtful value. The Himalaya provides an even greater field of opportunity than the Alps gave to De Saussure. It is so vast a range that it embraces many countries and different types of people. The peaks and glaciers present such difficulties to the pioneer that exploring them calls for a higher standard of mountaineering skill than at present exists.

但是世界上更大的山脈依然出奇地鮮為人知。就像 De Saussure 在一百五十年前看阿爾卑斯一樣,我們現在有機會看喜瑪拉雅。當地的住民以天然的方式生活,而不是熱切地為價值可疑的利益開發他們的國家。喜瑪拉雅提供一個比阿爾卑斯提供給 De Saussure 更大的機會,它是這麼地廣大,囊括許多國家和多樣的民族。那裡的山峰和冰川給予先鋒探險者的挑戰,要求他們必須提高現今登山技術的標準。

Let us approach this great heritage in the right spirit, not impelled by ambition. Let us study its people and their culture. Let us explore its vast tangle of mountains and glaciers, penetrating the deep sunless gorges to find the hidden beauty which lies beyond, crossing unknown passes which lead us from one region of mystery to another. Let us climb peaks by all means, because their beauty attracts us; not because others have failed, nor because the summits stand 28,000 feet above the sea, nor in patriotic fervour for the honour of the nation, nor for cheap publicity. Let us approach the peaks with humility; and, having found the way to them for ourselves, learn to solve their problems. Let us not attack them with an army, announcing on the wireless to a sensation-loving world the news of our departure and the progress of our subsequent advance.


But it is not yet time to climb these great mountains. With so much of the vast Himalaya still a blank on the map, our first privilege is to explore rather than to climb. In two hundred years, when the Himalaya are known, then we may enjoy the range by climbing its peaks. In two thousand years time, when all peaks are climbed, we shall look for more difficult routes by which to climb them, to recapture the feel of adventure, and perhaps to demonstrate our modern superiority!


It is unfortunately just as possible to go to the Himalaya, as to the Alps, with the wrong attitude of mind. Whether people realize that mountaineering is an inspiration, or condemn it as an insane risk of human life, it is obvious that its value lies in the motives of the climber. The ascent of Everest, like any other human endeavour, is only to be judged by the spirit in which it is attempted.


There is something fine in the desire to test human endurance against the deadening power of altitude, the difficulties of steep ice and rock, and the searching rigours of intense cold and wind; but the greatest value of the art of climbing, with its perfect co-ordination of mind and muscle, is that it teaches man a way of living in the beauty and solitude of high remote places.


And so – despite all the turmoil – the preparations of an expedition are for me so full of excitement that the irritation and delays only increase my longing to be off.

所以,儘管煩躁 ─ 準備遠征讓興奮充塞我心,煩人的瑣碎和延遲只增加我對出發日子的期待。

The voyage out to India was an interlude between a life and a life. We arrived at Bombay on April 22nd.



圖片取自 American Heart Association

圖片取自 American Heart Association

在美國從事戶外教育、嚮導的人通常(註1)都需要具備WFR(Wilderness First Responder)的資格。WFR是總長80小時的野外醫藥急救訓練。在美國給予WFR認證的機構有許多,我曾經接觸過的包括SOLO、WMI、以及WMTC(註2)。WFR認證有時效性,每隔二到三年必須重新認證。重新認證必須上24小時的課程,加上筆試和實際操作的測驗。如果在有效期內沒有重新認證,就必須從頭來過。














有很多原因會導致cardiac arrest,而CPR的主要目的是將有氧的血液打到全身,努力維持身體機能的基本運作。從WFR的眼光來看,CPR最有效的地方在下述地方:溺水、雪崩導致窒息、閃電、以及噎到(drowning、avalanche、lightning strikes、choking)。病人仍然有個健康的心臟,但是因為外在原因而進入 cardiac arrest。

如果因為外傷(major trauma-related)的原因導致心臟停止,那麼CPR也無力回天。

比較灰色的地帶是在heart attack導致的cardiac arrest,因為heart attack的成因是因為血管的正常功能受阻(通常是梗塞),CPR不能移除成因,所以一定要有後援,在都市裡後援很快可以到,CPR可以救人。野外則很難說了。



SOLO – SOLO Wilderness Medicine,
WMI – Wilderness Medicine Institute,
WMTC – Wilderness Medicine Training Center,

註3:美國這邊關於CPR的最高指導原則,基本上會以American Heart Association公佈的為準。網站:























John Gill,被許多人視為現代抱石的開山宗師。卻是從數學和體操好手跨領域過來的,他把該些哲學融入攀岩,有許多革命性的創見,當大家都注重在「大」問題上的時候,他偏偏專注在「小」問題(當時大家只把攀岩當作訓練,最終目的是登高山,他卻嚴肅看待攀岩(尤其是抱石),專注在問題本身)。Gill 認為攀岩是體操的延伸,攀岩必須了解身體,以及怎麼去支配身體的一些心理面向等。他的看法在該時代相當前衛,當時不受理解,受到批評,誰知現在抱石變成很多人認為最純粹的攀岩方式。

Yvon Chouinard,因為對攀登和自然的熱情和理解,後來在他經營的戶外品牌上,特別重視商業的永續以及如何讓產業可以善待環境,成為非常成功的企業家。





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台灣女孩. Chick From Taiwan





2016年11月出版的《我的露營車探險》講述了我和先生Dave Anderson,四年多來住在親手打造的露營車Magic,遊遍美西絕美荒野的故事和領悟。只要學會分辨「想要」與「需要」,「天地為家」便是生活,不是夢想。在博客來購買本書。本書影片






這本《睡在懸崖上的人》是我在 2012 年 7 月出版的書籍。副標很長「從博士生到在大垃圾箱撿拾過期食物,我不是墜落,我是攀上了夢想的高峰」,不過它倒是挺誠實地告訴讀者,這本書究竟要說些什麼。本書影片。在博客來購買本書。簡體中文版